JORRIT TORNQUIST

Incontro con JORRIT TORNQUIST

Lunedì 21 Marzo 2016, ore 10.30 – aperto a tutti gli studenti.

Nell’ambito del corso di Applicazioni Digitali per le Arti Visive prof. Agustin Sanchez

www.tornquist.it

Jorrit Tornquist, nato in Austria, è uno dei massimi esperti del colore attivi oggi in Italia.

La sua ricerca fin dal 1959, è un appassionato studio del colore, sia nel suo rapporto con la luce e con la superficie del dipinto, sia nelle sue potenzialità di azione sull’ambiente, soprattutto in ambito architettonico.
Il suo approccio alla pittura è sempre di tipo scientifico: una ricerca che tende, soprattutto nelle ultime opere, alla materializzazione dell’oggetto attraverso la luce e che si rivolge non solo alla percezione del colore, ma anche alle sue funzioni in natura e agli effetti psicologici sull’uomo.
Conoscere ed usare bene il colore è un tema centrale non solo per artisti, ma anche per architetti, urbanisti, designer.
Dalla capacità di controllare la percezione cromatica dipendono il successo del progetto e la sua capacità di inserirsi nell’ambiente e nella vita quotidiana in modo positivo per gli utenti.
Il colore è l’occasione di aumentare in misura essenziale il valore funzionale e culturale del progetto, ma anche di migliorarne la portata sociale.
Il suo conseguente lavoro di ricerca sulla percezione ed uso del colore ha portato a significative applicazioni in campo architettonico e del design.
Tra i suoi progetti cromatici per l’architettura: Ponte Expo, Termoutilizzatore ASM di Brescia, Centrale Termoelettrica sul Mincio, il complesso “Violino”, per la cooperativa la Famiglia di Brescia, Depuratore Milano Sud, Ospedale di Circolo Fondazione Macchi a Varese( interni), Ospedale Niguarda interventi di riqualificazione (blocco sud), Asilo Nido per il CCR di Ispra, Cementificio Lafarge  a Tavernola (BS).

Le numerose pubblicazioni approfondiscono l’approccio al colore sia dal punto di vista teorico che tecnico-pratico.

Attività artistica dal1965 ad oggi: mostre in gallerie private e pubbliche in Europa, Stati Uniti, Giappone. Presente in musei d’Europa, Israele, Sud e Nord America.

 LA FORMA QUOTIDIANA DEL COLORE

Nel 300 a.c. il filosofo greco Euclide prova a definire, attraverso un brillante metodo deduttivo, le teorie che stanno alla base dell’ottica e della percezione del colore, bisognerà però attendere ancora circa 2000 anni per ottenere la prima spiegazione scientifica (quasi) corretta: nel 1704 Isaac Newton termina il trattato Optiks, dove, per mezzo del noto esperimento nel quale un raggio di luce bianca passa attraverso un prisma ottico che lo filtra suddividendolo nei cinque colori primari, sono formulate le leggi della dispersione ottica e le basi di moltissime teorie fondamentali per la scienza ottica moderna. Questo momento segna un prolifico fiorire di grandi scoperte e formule che hanno come soggetti principali la Luce e il Colore e come attori la fisica e la chimica.

Immediato sorge poi l’interesse e lo studio della stessa materia da parte di letterati ed umanisti che, in totale opposizione alla scienza, conferiscono al colore componenti simboliche, emozionali e psicologiche capaci di influenzare comportamento ed attitudine umana e di sintetizzare complesse situazioni in una semplice tonalità. Ad inaugurare questa tendenza in epoca moderna è La Teoria dei Colori del poeta romantico Wolfgang Goethe che nel 1810, attraverso una fitta serie di esperimenti e riflessioni, apre un folgorante dibattito sulla potenzialità del colore. Parallelamente si apre la strada alla filosofia, con Arthur Shopenauer e il norvegese Birch Reichenwald Aars, e alla psicologia, con la nascita della corrente Gestalt (forma) nella quale il colore, insieme alla forma, è analizzato in relazione al mondo fenomenico come manifestazione elementare, in opposizione allo Strutturalismo. Da questo momento il dilagante coinvolgimento nei confronti di tale materia porterà innumerevoli figure a versare fiumi d’inchiostro per documentare le proprie scoperte; ricordiamo per rilevanza e diffusione le opere di Rudolf Arnheim, Hernst Gombrich, Johannes Itten, Josef Albers, Wassily Kandinski e Paul Klee. Considerando che gli ultimi tre nomi appartengono a figure di spicco del panorama artistico contemporaneo, sorge spontaneo accennare a come gli artisti, sin dalla notte dei tempi, dimostrino un attaccamento viscerale e quasi morboso verso il colore, in particolare, riducendo lo specchio all’ultimo secolo, molti artisti hanno dedicato i loro sforzi all’indagine del colore in senso stretto, senza l’intromissione di gesto, materia o figura; tra essi, oltre ai tre maestri sopracitati, spiccano i nomi di: Kazimir Malevich, Ad Reinhardt, Yves Klein, Barnett Newman, Ellsworth Kelly, Frank Stella, Mark Rothko, Robert Ryman, Agnes Martin, Donald Judd, Francesco Lo Savio, Jeff Verheyen e Sean Scully anche se idealmente la lista si potrebbe protrarre per qualche pagina.

Dopo tale premessa è giunto in momento di arrivare al dunque: dove collocare Jorrit Tornquist in questo apparentemente onnicomprensivo contesto? E ancora, per quale motivo quest’artista abbia scelto una strada così già minuziosamente battuta, esplorata e documentata?

Partiamo dal principio, nel 1959, da buon biologo, Tornquist si avvicina al colore con l’occhio dello scienziato e all’arte affascinato dalle ultime e più radicali espressioni, pur senza mai cedere al Weiner Aktionismus; eccolo dunque studiare a fondo le complesse stratificazioni che danno origine al pigmento, impadronirsi delle leggi che regolano il comportamento della luce, contemplare e creare nuove regole per mettere a nudo ogni sfumatura tonale, sperimentare i più svariati accostamenti e mutamenti cromatici, esplorare insomma, con brillante curiosità, tutto il gigantesco potere della nuance. Se da un punto di vista formale possiamo aggiungere un vivo, anche se del tutto naturale, interesse nei confronti della materia tridimensionale, c’è in realtà molto altro: spicca infatti come tutta la ricerca dell’artista austriaco si diriga immediatamente verso una concezione di arte globale, globale inteso come ambientale, che cerca il completamento e la giustificazione di sé stessa esattamente in relazione al suo intorno, un intorno dinamico e sempre nuovo. L’opera cromatica è dunque pensata, non come evento singolo e in sé finito, ma in continuo movimento: deve variare al variare della luce, dell’ambiente, dell’angolo dal quale la si osserva e dall’osservatore stesso, ogni dettaglio deve essere considerato con precisione chirurgica senza tralasciare nulla e senza troppo concedere alla velleità artistica. Sembra inverosimile ma, in tale rigido e minuziosamente calcolato contesto, trova spazio anche un umano e colto simbolismo, ecco dunque che il colore, così come il materiale e la composizione, non si compiacciono del loro essere puramente speculativo ma bensì si riallacciano, seppure in sordina, al sentimento e all’emozione.  Le prime opere degli anni sessanta, semplicemente denominate Opus, appaiono dunque, nella maggior parte dei casi, esteticamente rigorose e poco attraenti, ma allo stesso tempo pregne delle più alte riflessioni scientifiche e non solo; penso ad Origine della luce del 1961, dove la scala cromatica, piegata ad una forma ovaleggiante nel centro, si dissolve nel bianco puro della tela, frutto di una sintesi complessa, per poi essere ripresa complementarmente attraverso un incerto tratteggio di quadratini che ne ricostruisce lo spettro sparendo poi nuovamente nel bianco oblio interrotto da sei elementi primari che scandiscono i bordi della superficie, piccole e candide deformazioni tridimensionali della tela seguono l’andamento del colore e si relazionano con ambiente e fruitore contribuendo all’effetto di destabilizzazione e vuoto che un eccesso di luce provoca.

Tra il finire degli anni ’60 e l’inizio dei ’70 la tecnica di Tornquist si ingentilisce e la sua produzione inizia a risentire dell’influenza della Minimal Art, anche se solo in chiave estetica, in breve dà vita a pacate composizioni cromatiche presentando le più svariate tinte che sfumano e si confondono attraverso variazioni tonali appena percepibili regolate da un rigido, anche se esteticamente soffuso ed aereo, equilibrio matematico. Tutte le ricerche precedenti convogliano in una nuova forma più semplice, armonica e pacifica, anche se non sfacciatamente attraente insomma, banalizzando, l’opera diventa più bella. Se era proprio la grazia a difettare nella primissima creazione di Jorrit Tornquist, questa abbonda seducente a partire dal nuovo decennio; giunti a questo punto, a questo traguardo completo e chiaro, appare già evidente il contributo dell’artista al mondo e alla storia e si potrebbe già rispondere con facilità alle due domande che hanno aperto queste osservazioni, in realtà però siamo solo all’inizio di una geniale ed incredibilmente varia vicenda creativa.

Non soddisfatto dalla determinatezza e bidimensionalità della tradizionale superficie pittorica l’artista vuole estendere a tutto quello che gli stà intorno il suo estro e le proprie scoperte tecnico-estetiche, tende dunque a trasformare il mondo in un’immensa tavolozza, dopotutto come dargli torto quando afferma: “Il colore è dappertutto, nasce nella luce del giorno e si manifesta nel cielo e nei mari come anche nei nostri occhi, ed è sempre mutevole: la pelle del camaleonte, della bolla di sapone o dello strato sottile dell’olio sull’acqua. Il colore è superficie, pittura, trucco, abito cresciuto o indossato, segnaletico o mimetico…” Questo frammento di pensiero potrebbe essere utilizzato come principio regolatore dell’intera carriera artistica di Tornquist, il quale inizia la sua fuga dalla tela già dal 1966, momento in cui lo vediamo attivo nella folle missione di abbellire e colorare il pianeta attraverso la decorazione e l’arredamento della Casa dello studente di Graz. Quello appena citato sarà solo il primo, nonchè il più piccolo, intervento coloristico su base ambientale messo in atto dall’artista, ad oggi infatti vanta oltre cinquanta Color Projects, mezzo con cui si eleva ad una dimensione superiore di vero e proprio demiurgo ed artefice che, tramite le conoscenze acquisite ed una sensibilità concreta ma anche unica e raffinata, è davvero in grado di migliorare in pratica l’aspetto dell’ambiente umano. All’interno di questa tipologia artistica spiccano per impatto e riconoscimento internazionale: l’intervento sul municipio di Völkermarkt (1985), la colorazione del noto Termoutilizzatore ASM (2000) e della centrale termoelettrica ASM (2002) a Brescia, la realizzazione del piano regolatore sul colore di Torino (1979-81) e soprattutto alcune impegnative azioni sul tessuto urbano come la sapiente tinteggiatura del quartiere popolare di Rivalta (TO) nel 1981 e della Jacomini Plaz di Graz (1996).

Immediatamente le sue capacità e la portata delle sue idee vengono notate ed inizia una proficua e varia attività didattica ed espositiva; senza dilagare troppo è però il momento di tornare al dunque: la nuova produzione artistica. Scandendo il percorso per pochi e fondamentali passi, verso la metà degli anni settanta, e per un brevissimo periodo, Tornquist inserisce l’elemento verbale nella composizione pittorica, per mezzo di tale azione intende avvicinarsi al fruitore per fargli meglio comprendere la portata simbolica del suo discorso creativo, ecco come un fiorire dinamico di linee dallo stesso punto anteposto alla scritta Sun, ricordi i raggi del sole e stimoli una sensazione di calore. Di seguito passa all’inserimento della materia tridimensionale nella superficie pittorica dimostrando subito come la luce, e di conseguenza il colore, si comporti in maniera totalmente differente in rapporto alla terza dimensione, entra così in gioco l’elemento ombra e si acuisce la dinamicità dell’opera (e come sempre del colore) in relazione alla posizione della stessa, alla provenienza del raggio luminoso e alla modalità di osservazione da parte dello spettatore, che ora si trasforma, grazie a questa partecipazione, in attore. Come accaduto in precedenza riesce ad eliminare la brutalità e la rigorosa didattica dell’oggetto “trovato” sostituendolo, prima con la sua riproduzione di gesso e in seguito con un rilievo in cartone, per arrivare ad una piacevole e lirica soluzione negli anni ’80, quando riproduce il complesso gioco luce-colore-ombra attraverso la sovrapposizione di numerosi strati di colore acrilico, sapientemente mescolato per generare iridescenze particolari, fino a raggiungere concrezioni materiche tali da creare punti di buio. Ecco che anche questa concezione di un colore attivo, energico, che gioca con lo spettatore e con l’ambiente, prende una forma artistica compiuta.

La massiccia accumulazione di acrilico modifica inevitabilmente le caratteristiche intrinseche del colore, per non parlare poi dell’inserimento di oggetti estranei che ne alterano totalmente le proprietà. Ecco dunque nascere sul finire degli anni ’80 una folgorante intuizione: la tela, accuratamente dipinta con tonalità e sfumature rare e ricercate, non aderisce completamente al telaio ma ne lascia libero un angolo ritirandosi da un lato e dando origine ad una serie di pieghe, in tal modo sorge un prolifico dialogo tra pieno e vuoto, tra l’ambiente e l’opera e su queste pieghe opalescenti la luce slitta e guizza originando effetti sempre nuovi ed inaspettati. Contemporaneamente ad un consolidato utilizzo della “piegatura” multicolore, che vivacizza la staticità cromatica e materica della tela in alcuni casi anche senza scoprire l’ordinario telaio, l’artista dà il via al ciclo degli “Stracci”. Un materiale banale e consueto come la stoffa di scarto attorcigliata su sé stessa diventa in breve il protagonista di queste opere d’arte; il colore, come al solito studiato e calcolato in tutte le sue determinanti e proprietà secondo gusto estetico e formule chimiche, è steso su corde di straccio affiancate le une alle altre ed applicate su una tela. Le sfumature sono accentuate dalle increspature della stessa fune e dallo spazio che si viene a formare tra un elemento e un altro creando un concetto di nuova e vibrante complessità estetica, allo stesso tempo però, per mezzo della semplicità del materiale utilizzato, il misterioso elemento cromatico risulta vicino come non mai all’abitudine quotidiana, al reale e, di conseguenza, alla nostra comprensione.

Con questa rapida esposizione dell’opera di Jorrit Tornquist, che si guarda bene dal voler essere completa ed esaustiva, si intende estrapolare chiaramente la solida posizione dell’artista e il suo ruolo all’interno del panorama coevo. In termini banali Tornquist, attraverso una vita di studi, ricerche e le più varie sperimentazioni, è riuscito a dare una forma artisticamente compiuta al colore; questo primo traguardo è però solo lo spunto che spiana la strada ad una grandiosa e fondamentale soluzione: il colore, e la forma che l’artista austriaco infonde a questo, non sono teorici, ideali, perfetti o tendenti all’assoluto, hanno invece, e questa è da considerarsi suprema novità nel mondo dell’arte, caratteristiche del tutto quotidiane e concrete che li collocano vicino al normale spettatore e li rendono soprattutto facilmente comprensibili da questo. La grande portata di cui si fa carico  Tornquist è apertamente quella di aver applicato con lucidità, grande gusto estetico ed una tendenza al totale, le liriche teorie del colore e le severe formule chimiche del pigmento alla realtà semplice e concreta del mondo che vediamo e viviamo ogni giorno, conferendo dunque una forma quotidiana al colore, solitamente inteso invece secondo accezioni artistiche pure e lontane dal consueto.

Alberto Pasini

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  • 性刺激是威而鋼發揮藥效的必要條件,性刺激越強藥效越佳。 情緒、疲勞、焦慮與伴侶的配合會影響男性的性反應,也同樣會影響威而鋼作用–威而鋼

  • 犀利士用於治療男性性功能勃起障礙(ED),其藥理是使阴茎海绵体平滑肌放松,?便于陰莖快速充血而达到滿意的堅硬勃起-犀利士

  • 犀利士用於治療男性性功能勃起障礙(ED),其藥理是使阴茎海绵体平滑肌放松,?便于陰莖快速充血而达到滿意的堅硬勃起-犀利士

  • 威尔刚(viagra,台湾名:威而钢)是由美国辉瑞研制开发的一种口服治疗ED的药物。用于治疗勃起功能障碍以及早泄,对于勃起功能减退与早泄有非常显著的改善–威而鋼

  • Cialis, also known as taranafil (English names: cialisr, chinacialisr), is the world’s three major aphrodisiac–? Produced by Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals in the United States. Its efficacy is as long as 36 hours. It is the first choice for sexual dysfunction, Levitra

  • Xu Lanfang reminded male friends that in addition to Granville, medicines such as Cialis and Viratron are all prescription drugs. Therefore, they must be prescribed by a doctor and taken after instructions. Do not take other people’s medicines casually-Japanese rattan

  • Cialis, also known as taranafil (English names: cialisr, chinacialisr), is the world’s three major aphrodisiac–? Produced by Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals in the United States. Its efficacy is as long as 36 hours. It is the first choice for sexual dysfunction, Levitra

  • This site provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of Cialis, evaluation of Cialis, and side effects of Cialis. Cialis? As the first-choice health food for men’s impotence health care, it is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and has a significant prolongation for men-Japanese rattan

  • Sexual stimulation is a necessary condition for Granville to exert its efficacy. The stronger the sexual stimulation, the better the efficacy. Emotions, fatigue, anxiety, and the cooperation of a partner will affect the male’s sexual response, and it will also affect the role of Weiergang–Weiergang

  • Cialis, also known as taranafil (English names: cialisr, chinacialisr), is the world’s three major aphrodisiac–? Produced by Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals in the United States. Its efficacy is as long as 36 hours. It is the first choice for sexual dysfunction, Levitra

  • Weiergang’s real experience experience ptt Weiergang’s effect is really awkward, I’m afraid that my girlfriend will not be able to go back after trying it. Taiwan’s Old Driver Pharmacy 2020-06-16. Recently, I saw many villagers talking about Weier in the PTT section. The steel effect is very awkward. So I will also post-Cialis

  • Cialis is used to treat male erectile dysfunction (ED). Its pharmacology is to relax the smooth muscles of the corpus cavernosum, which facilitates rapid congestion of the penis to achieve a satisfactory firm erection.

  • Weiergang’s real experience experience ptt Weiergang’s effect is really awkward, I’m afraid that my girlfriend will not be able to go back after trying it. Taiwan’s Old Driver Pharmacy 2020-06-16. Recently, I saw many villagers talking about Weier in the PTT section. The steel effect is very awkward. So I will also post.

  • Priligy (English name: Priligy Chemical name: Dapoxetine hydrochloride) is currently the only drug developed for premature ejaculation (PE) and the only premature ejaculation approved by the State Food and Drug Administration (CEDA).

  • Weiergang’s real experience experience ptt Weiergang’s effect is really awkward, I’m afraid that my girlfriend will not be able to go back after trying it. Taiwan’s Old Driver Pharmacy 2020-06-16. Recently, I saw many villagers talking about Weier in the PTT section. The steel effect is very awkward. So I will also post.

  • Sildenafil (English: Sildenafil), also translated as sildenafil, is a drug for male erectile dysfunction accidentally invented during the development of drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. For controlled drugs, they can be prescribed for use only after a doctor’s diagnosis.

  • Basically, the blue Viagra is a well-known old medicine, while the yellow Cialis has a long-lasting effect. As for Levitron, the side effects caused by the lower dose are less, so that Taiwan’s annual sales can be expected to reach. Multi-billion dollar market.

  • Sexual stimulation is a necessary condition for Granville to exert its efficacy. The stronger the sexual stimulation, the better the efficacy. Emotions, fatigue, anxiety, and the cooperation of a partner will affect the male’s sexual response, and it will also affect the role of Weiergang.

  • Weiergang’s real experience experience ptt Weiergang’s effect is really awkward, I’m afraid that my girlfriend will not be able to go back after trying it. Taiwan’s Old Driver Pharmacy 2020-06-16. Recently, I saw many villagers talking about Weier in the PTT section. The steel effect is very awkward. So I will also post.

  • Xu Lanfang reminded male friends that in addition to Granville, medicines such as Cialis and Viratron are all prescription drugs. Therefore, they must be prescribed by a doctor and taken after instructions. Do not take other people’s medicines casually.

  • Xu Lanfang reminded male friends that in addition to Granville, medicines such as Cialis and Viratron are all prescription drugs. Therefore, they must be prescribed by a doctor and taken after instructions. Do not take other people’s medicines casually.

  • The 1st wrist chronographs was developed in ’35 contributing to two decades later on, Breguet introduced creation of the Type XX style commissioned by the France military.

  • Xu Lanfang reminded male friends that in addition to Granville, medicines such as Cialis and Viratron are all prescription drugs. Therefore, they must be prescribed by a doctor and taken after instructions. Do not take other people’s medicines casually.

  • Viagra (Taiwan name: Viagra) is an oral treatment drug developed by Pfizer, USA. It is used to treat erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation, and has a very significant improvement in erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

  • The ingredient of Japanese rattan contains red root grass, which is pungent and sweet and warm in nature. It can replenish the life gate and nourish vital energy. The red root grass can activate the body’s vitality, activate testosterone, and can effectively repair self-damaged cells.

  • Aude Lemordant, created inside Grenoble, England, within The 80’s. Whenever your woman was obviously a kid, the lady typically saw gliders flying throughout the roof structure. Consequently whenshe wasyoung, shedreamed involving hurtling to be able to nirvana and actually talking to clouds. On the day of 15, the lady took the first task in the direction of the sun; A couple of years afterwards, she had been Of sixteen years and got the glider license; within Year 2000, the girl efficiently handed down the woman’s pilot’s permit test throughout Los angeles. Inside Aude’s thoughts and opinions, the seat was the girl “best spot to work”, so your woman made a decision to fly since the girl career. Soon after graduating in the French Nationwide Civil Flight Initiate (ENAC),Aude became a member of air Italy. When the girl has been 25 yrs . old, the lady starteddriving Airbus, Boeing 777 plane, the actual trip training she identified yet another entire world at night conventional airfare stop traveling. It is this set of two flying passion, constantly inspiringher to accomplish far more excellent final results.During those times, buying a delightful Breitling replicate observe with african american dialwas your ex prolonged desire.

  • The actual dual-time display reaches Half a dozen o’clock, and it can always be modified between the two using the pushers in 4 and 8 o’clock. And lastly, there’s also a big-date complication, which is located from Some o-clock. Told you it absolutely was an active dial.

  • This site provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of Cialis, evaluation of Cialis, and side effects of Cialis. Cialis? As the first-choice health food for men’s impotence health care, it is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and has a significant prolongation for men.

  • If you can’t even get an erection, eating Granville is useless! Xu Lanfang explained that male erections need to receive sexual stimulation, such as A-films, A-books, and other sexual desire content, at which time the brain will release.

  • If you can’t even get an erection, eating Granville is useless! Xu Lanfang explained that male erections need to receive sexual stimulation, such as A-films, A-books, and other sexual desire content, at which time the brain will release.

  • Cialis, also known as taranafil (English names: cialisr, chinacialisr), is the world’s three major aphrodisiac–? Produced by Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals in the United States. Its efficacy is as long as 36 hours. It is the first choice for sexual dysfunction.

  • Hi The ingredient of Japanese rattan contains red root grass, which is pungent and sweet and warm in nature. It can replenish the life gate and nourish vital energy. The red root grass can activate the body’s vitality, activate testosterone, and can effectively repair self-damaged cells.

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